banner

Gukoresha graphene ni ubuhe?Imanza ebyiri zo gusaba reka wumve ibyifuzo bya graphene

Mu mwaka wa 2010, Geim na Novoselov begukanye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel muri fiziki kubera akazi bakoze kuri graphene.Iki gihembo cyasize abantu benshi cyane.Nyuma ya byose, ntabwo buri gikoresho cyo kugerageza igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel gisanzwe nka kaseti ifata, kandi ntabwo buri kintu cyubushakashatsi cyoroshye kandi cyoroshye kubyumva nka graphene “ebyiri-zifite kristu”.Ibikorwa muri 2004 birashobora gutangwa muri 2010, bikaba bidasanzwe mubyanditsweho igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel mumyaka yashize.

Graphene ni ubwoko bwibintu bigizwe nigice kimwe cya atome ya karubone itondekanye muburyo bubiri bwubuki bwa hexagonal.Kimwe na diyama, grafite, fullerene, carbone nanotubes na karubone ya amorphous, ni ibintu (ibintu byoroshye) bigizwe nibintu bya karubone.Nkuko bigaragara ku gishushanyo gikurikira, fullerène na carbone nanotube irashobora kugaragara nkizunguruka muburyo bumwe uhereye kumurongo umwe wa graphene, ushyizwe hamwe na graphene nyinshi.Ubushakashatsi bujyanye no gukoresha graphene kugirango busobanure imiterere yibintu byoroshye bya karubone (grafite, carbone nanotubes na graphene) bimaze imyaka igera kuri 60, ariko muri rusange abantu bemeza ko ibikoresho nkibi byombi bigoye kubaho wenyine, gusa byometse kuri bitatu-bingana hejuru yubutaka cyangwa imbere mubintu nka grafite.Mu 2004 ni bwo Andre Geim n'umunyeshuri we Konstantin Novoselov bambuye igipande kimwe cya graphene muri grafite binyuze mu bushakashatsi ni bwo ubushakashatsi kuri graphene bwageze ku majyambere mashya.

Byombi fullerene (ibumoso) na carbone nanotube (hagati) irashobora gufatwa nkaho yazungurutswe nigice kimwe cya graphene muburyo bumwe, mugihe igishushanyo (iburyo) gishyizwe hamwe na graphene nyinshi binyuze muguhuza imbaraga za van der Waals.

Muri iki gihe, graphene irashobora kuboneka muburyo bwinshi, kandi uburyo butandukanye bufite ibyiza byabwo nibibi.Geim na Novoselov babonye graphene muburyo bworoshye.Bakoresheje kaseti ibonerana iboneka muri supermarkets, bakuyemo graphene, urupapuro rwerekana igishushanyo kimwe gusa cya atome ya karubone, uhereye mugice cya pyrolitike ya grafite.Ibi biroroshye, ariko kugenzura ntabwo aribyiza cyane, kandi graphene ifite ubunini buri munsi ya microne 100 (kimwe cya cumi cya milimetero) irashobora kuboneka gusa, ishobora gukoreshwa mubigeragezo, ariko biragoye gukoreshwa mubikorwa Porogaramu.Imyuka ya chimique irashobora gukura graphene ingero zingana na santimetero icumi hejuru yicyuma.Nubwo agace gafite icyerekezo gihoraho ni microni 100 gusa [3,4], cyabaye gikenewe kugirango umusaruro ukenewe.Ubundi buryo busanzwe ni ugushyushya kariside ya silicon (SIC) kristu kugeza kuri 1100 ℃ muri vacuum, kugirango atome ya silikoni hafi yubuso bugenda buhumeka, na atome ya karubone isigaye irongera ihindurwe, ishobora no kubona urugero rwa graphene hamwe nibintu byiza.

Graphene ni ikintu gishya gifite imiterere yihariye: amashanyarazi yacyo ni meza nkumuringa, kandi nubushyuhe bwumuriro buruta ibintu byose bizwi.Biragaragara cyane.Gusa igice gito (2.3%) cyumwanya uhagaze urumuri rugaragara ruzakirwa na graphene, kandi urumuri rwinshi ruzanyuramo.Nibyinshi cyane kuburyo na atome ya helium (molekile ntoya ya gaze) idashobora kunyuramo.Iyi miterere yubumaji ntabwo yarazwe na grafite, ahubwo ni kwantike ya kwant.Imiterere yihariye yamashanyarazi na optique igena ko ifite ibyifuzo byinshi.

Nubwo graphene yagaragaye gusa mugihe kitarenze imyaka icumi, yerekanye ibikoresho byinshi bya tekiniki, ni gake cyane mubijyanye na fiziki na siyansi.Bifata imyaka irenga icumi cyangwa imyaka mirongo kugirango ibikoresho rusange biva muri laboratoire bijya mubuzima busanzwe.Gukoresha graphene ni ubuhe?Reka turebe ingero ebyiri.

Electrode yoroshye
Mubikoresho byinshi byamashanyarazi, ibikoresho bitwara ibintu neza bigomba gukoreshwa nka electrode.Amasaha ya elegitoronike, kubara, tereviziyo, kwerekana ibintu bya kirisiti yerekana, gukoraho, imirasire y'izuba nibindi bikoresho byinshi ntibishobora kuvaho kubaho electrode iboneye.Electrode gakondo ibonerana ikoresha indium tin oxyde (ITO).Bitewe nigiciro cyinshi hamwe nogutanga indium nkeya, ibikoresho biroroshye kandi ntibishobora guhinduka, kandi electrode igomba kubikwa mugice cyo hagati cya vacuum, kandi igiciro kiri hejuru.Kuva kera, abahanga bagiye bagerageza kubisimbuza.Usibye ibisabwa mu mucyo, gutwara neza no gutegura byoroshye, niba ibintu byoroshye ubwabyo ari byiza, bizaba byiza gukora "impapuro za elegitoronike" cyangwa ibindi bikoresho byerekana.Kubwibyo, guhinduka nabyo ni ikintu cyingenzi cyane.Graphene ni ibintu nkibi, bikwiranye na electrode ibonerana.

Abashakashatsi bo muri kaminuza ya Samsung na chengjunguan muri Koreya y'Epfo babonye graphene ifite uburebure bwa diagonal ya santimetero 30 bakoresheje imyuka ya chimique hanyuma bakayimurira muri firime ya micron 188 ya polyethylene terephthalate (PET) kugirango ikore ecran ya graphene.Nkuko bigaragara ku gishushanyo gikurikira, graphene ikura kuri fayili yumuringa ibanza guhuzwa na kaseti yumuriro (igice kibonerana cyubururu), hanyuma umuringa wumuringa ugashonga hakoreshejwe imiti, hanyuma graphene ikoherezwa muri firime ya PET ukoresheje ubushyuhe .

Ibikoresho bishya byerekana amashanyarazi
Graphene ifite optique idasanzwe.Nubwo hariho urwego rumwe gusa rwa atome, irashobora gukuramo 2,3% yumucyo wasohotse mumurongo wose wumurambararo kuva kumuri ugaragara kugeza kuri infragre.Uyu mubare ntaho uhuriye nibindi bikoresho bya graphene kandi bigenwa na kwant electrodinamike [6].Umucyo winjizwamo uzayobora kubyara abatwara (electron na mwobo).Igisekuru nogutwara abatwara muri graphene biratandukanye cyane nibisanzwe bya semiconductor.Ibi bituma graphene ikwiranye nibikoresho bya ultrafast bifata ibikoresho bya induction.Bigereranijwe ko ibikoresho nkibi byerekana amashanyarazi bishobora gukora kuri 500ghz.Niba ikoreshwa mugukwirakwiza ibimenyetso, irashobora kohereza miliyari 500 zeru cyangwa imwe kumasegonda, ikarangiza ihererekanyamakuru ryibiri muri disiki ebyiri za Blu ray mumasegonda imwe.

Impuguke zo mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi cya IBM Thomas J. Watson muri Amerika zakoresheje graphene mu gukora ibikoresho byinjiza amashanyarazi bishobora gukora kuri 10GHz [8].Ubwa mbere, flake ya graphene yateguwe kuri substrate ya silicon itwikiriwe na silika 300 nm yububiko bwa "kaseti yo gutanyagura kaseti", hanyuma zahabu ya palladium cyangwa zahabu ya titanium ifite intera ya micron 1 n'ubugari bwa 250 nm.Muri ubu buryo, haboneka igikoresho cya graphene gishingiye ku mashanyarazi.

Igishushanyo mbonera cya graphene ifoto yerekana ibikoresho hamwe na scanning electron microscope (SEM) amafoto yintangarugero.Umurongo mugufi wumukara mubishushanyo uhuye na microne 5, kandi intera iri hagati yumurongo wicyuma ni micron imwe.

Binyuze mu bushakashatsi, abashakashatsi basanze iki cyuma cya graphene cyubatswe cyuma gifata amashanyarazi gishobora kugera kuri 16ghz yumurimo mwinshi, kandi gishobora gukora umuvuduko mwinshi muburebure bwa nm 300 (hafi ya ultraviolet) kugeza kuri microne 6 (infrared), mugihe imiyoboro ya fotoelectric induction ntishobora gusubiza urumuri rwa infragre hamwe nuburebure burebure.Inshuro zakazi za graphene fotoelectric induction ibikoresho biracyafite umwanya munini wo gutera imbere.Imikorere yayo isumba iyindi ituma igira ibyifuzo byinshi, harimo itumanaho, kugenzura kure no gukurikirana ibidukikije.

Nkibikoresho bishya bifite imiterere yihariye, ubushakashatsi ku ikoreshwa rya graphene burimo kugaragara.Biratugoye kubarura hano.Mu bihe biri imbere, hashobora kubaho imiyoboro yingirakamaro ikozwe muri graphene, sisitemu ya molekile ikozwe muri graphene na moteri ya molekile ikozwe muri graphene mubuzima bwa buri munsi… Graphene igenda isohoka muri laboratoire izamurika mubuzima bwa buri munsi.

Turashobora kwitega ko umubare munini wibikoresho bya elegitoronike ukoresheje graphene bizagaragara mugihe cya vuba.Tekereza ukuntu byari gushimisha niba terefone zacu na netbook zacu zishobora kuzunguruka, gufatirwa mumatwi, kuzuza mumifuka, cyangwa kuzenguruka mumaboko mugihe bidakoreshejwe!


Igihe cyo kohereza: Werurwe-09-2022